Enhanced Interrogation Techniques (EIT) is a form of systematic torture that is afflicted onto detainees by the United States’ Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), the Defense of Intelligence Agency (DIA), and other various fragments of the United States’ Armed Forces at undisclosed military defense locations around the world, which include Bagram, Guantanamo Bay and Abu Gharib. This method of extracting essential data from these people are … Responding to the ruling, David Davis, the Conservative MP and former Shadow Home Secretary, commented: The ruling implies that torture has taken place in the [Binyam] Mohamed case, that British agencies may have been complicit, and further, that the United States government has threatened our high court that if it releases this information the US government will withdraw its intelligence cooperation with the United Kingdom. Over Brutality and Deceit in Terrorism Interrogations", "Congress Clashes Over Release of CIA Torture Report", "Top senator rejects CIA torture report redactions ahead of public release", "Here's What Dianne Feinstein Said About the Torture Report", "Senate report on CIA program details brutality, dishonesty", "Does Torture Work? The CIA was unprepared as it began operating its Detention and Interrogation Program more than six months after being granted detention authorities. "[158] Obama Administration CIA director John Brennan said that it is "unknowable" whether brutality helped or hindered in the collection of useful intelligence. Interrogation . Terrorism Act 2006 All police officers are trained in interview techniques during basic training, further training in detailed intervi… '[86] "A United Nations report denounced the US abuse of prisoners as tantamount to torture. "[182], On June 8, 2008, fifty-six House Democrats asked for an independent investigation, raising the possibility that authorising these techniques may constitute a crime by Bush administration officials. The CIA has actively avoided or impeded congressional oversight of the program. Der Military Commissions Act (Gesetz über Militärkommissionen) ist ein US-amerikanisches Bundesgesetz, das den rechtlichen Status sogenannter „ungesetzlicher feindlicher Kombattanten“ regelt. [256] In February 2016, several leading U.S. presidential candidates openly argued for reintroducing torture. The memo is signed by then-CIA director George Tenet and dated January 28, 2003. [65] Former senator Bob Graham (D-Fla.), chairman of the Senate intelligence committee after the 9/11 attacks, said he was not briefed on waterboarding and that in three instances agency officials said he'd attended briefings on days that his personal journal shows he was elsewhere. [17], The number of detainees subjected to these methods has never been authoritatively established, nor how many died as a result of the interrogation regime, though this number could be as high as 100. [135], In 2009, Paul Kane of The Washington Post said that the press was hesitant to define these techniques as torture, as it is a crime and nobody who engaged in "enhanced interrogation" has been charged or convicted. "[56], After the Justice Department completed what are now known as the Torture Memos, Condoleezza Rice told the CIA that the techniques were approved in July 2002. "[107]:111, It is unknown to what extent the agency's recommendations were used or for how long, but according to the same Senate report, the list drawn up by DIA included the use of "drugs such as sodium pentothal and demerol", humiliating treatment using female interrogators and sleep deprivation. It is unclear what happened to the secret facility after the 2013 transfer of the base to Afghan authorities following several postponements. Enhanced interrogation techniques" or "enhanced interrogation" is a euphemism for the program of systematic torture of detainees by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) and various components of the U.S. Armed Forces at black sites around the world, including Bagram, Guantanamo Bay, and Abu Ghraib, authorized by officials of the George W. … Bush cancelled his trip to Switzerland after news of the potential warrant came to light. The idea is to get the subject to trust the 'good cop' and provide him with the information they are looking for. [26] Commander Neil Nelson of the St. Paul Police Department, an expert in taped interrogation,[27] has described taped interrogation in Minnesota as the "best thing ever rammed down our throats". These include: In December 2007, CIA director Michael Hayden stated that "of about 100 prisoners held to date in the CIA program, the enhanced techniques were used on about 30, and waterboarding used on just three.".[103][104]. The CIA repeatedly provided inaccurate information to the. The Bush administration told the CIA in 2002 that its interrogators working abroad would not violate US prohibitions against torture unless they "have the specific intent to inflict severe pain or suffering", according to a previously secret US Justice Department memo released on July 24, 2008. Claims of Abuse at Guantánamo Bay", "Memos Say 2 Officials Who Saw Prison Abuse Were Threatened", "Inside the Secret Interrogation Facility at Bagram", "U.S. hands over control of Bagram prison to Afghan government", "General Is Said To Have Urged Use of Dogs", Review of DoD-Directed Investigations of Detainee Abuse, Office of the Inspector General, U.S. Department of Defense, "Rumsfeld okayed abuses says former U.S. general", "Abu Ghraib head finds vindication in newly released memos", "Investigators recommended disciplining Gitmo commander", "American Psychological Association Bolstered C.I.A. Yet it is a reality of both the modern world and past ages and is used by police, lawyers, parents and suspicious partners as well as the military. That would directly threaten the UK's national security, Miliband had told the court. [131][132] A report by Human Rights First (HRF) and Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) stated that these techniques constitute torture. The recommendation was overruled by General Bantz J. Craddock, commander of U.S. Southern Command, who referred the matter to the army's inspector general. The FBI agents wrote in memorandums that were never meant to be disclosed publicly that they had seen female interrogators forcibly squeeze male prisoners' genitals, and that they had witnessed other detainees stripped and shackled low to the floor for many hours. Military interrogation takes two forms, Tactical Questioning or Detailed Interviewing. Resistance training is often a prerequisite for some military personnel since prisoners of war (POWs) routinely undergo interrogation. [134] The UN report called for cessation of the US-termed "enhanced interrogation" techniques, as the UN sees these methods as a form of torture. Interrogation Techniques Interrogation (also called questioning or interpellation) is interviewing as commonly employed by officers of the police, military, and Intelligence agencies with the goal of extracting a confession or obtaining information. Articles with dead external links from November 2014, Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia. [67] Zelikow's memo warned that the interrogation techniques breached US law, and could lead to prosecutions for war crimes. [43], In late 2001, the first detainees including men like Murat Kurnaz and Lakhdar Boumediene, later established to be innocent and arrested on flawed intelligence or sold to the CIA for bounties, were brought to hastily improvised CIA/military bases such as Kandahar, Afghanistan. Torture (Editorial)", "ICRC Report on the Treatment of Fourteen "High Value Detainees" in CIA Custody", "Fighting 'terrorism' with torture: torture is a form of terrorism: there are no justifications for it", "The Pentagon's IG Report Contradicts What the APA Has Said About the Involvement of Psychologists in Abusive Interrogations – A Q&A on Psychologists and Torture", "The Dark Side: Jane Mayer on the Inside Story of How the War on Terror Turned Into a War on American Ideals", "Enforced Disappearance, Illegal Interstate Transfer, and Other Human Rights Abuses Involving the UK Overseas Territories: Executive Summary", "Waterboarding Historically Controversial", "Command's Responsibility: Detainee Deaths in U.S. This is in contrast to a "taped" or "recorded confession," which typically only includes the final statement of the suspect. [77] The CIA came to learn that Mitchell and Jessen's expertise in waterboarding was probably "misrepresented" and thus, there was no reason to believe it was medically safe or effective. The technique is long, complicated, and involves several strategies. [126][127], Porter Goss, the Director of Central Intelligence, in testimony before the Senate Armed Services Committee on March 17, 2005, described waterboarding as falling into the area of "professional interrogation techniques," differentiating them from torture:[128], As I said publicly before, and I know for a fact, that torture is not – it's not productive," Mr. Goss said. "[232] The Washington Post stated: The measure would effectively ban the use of simulated drowning, temperature extremes and other harsh tactics that the CIA used on al-Qaeda prisoners after the September 11, 2001, attacks. Brynes coined the phrase “the third degree” to describe his interrogation technique for eliciting confessions from criminal suspects. [230], On December 14, 2005, the Detainee Treatment Act was passed into law, setting the Army policy as standard for all agencies and prohibiting "cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment."[231]. Massachusetts senator Edward Kennedy described Bush's veto as "one of the most shameful acts of his presidency". [10] Torture also became widespread in some Asian nations and South Pacific nations, in Malasia, the Philippines and elsewhere, both for interrogation and to terrorize opponents of the regime. [64] Ms. Harman was the only congressional leader to object to the tactics being proposed. A person's suggestibility is how willing they are to accept and act on suggestions by others. The report tells that the ICRC finds the detainees stories "largely credible, having put much stock in the fact that the story each detainee told about his transfer, treatment and conditions of confinement was basically consistent, even though they had been incommunicado with each other throughout their detention by us [the CIA]." That, after all, is the teaching of United States v. Altstötter, the Nuremberg case brought against German Justice Department lawyers whose memoranda crafted the basis for implementation of the infamous "Night and Fog Decree. [190], On January 20, 2009, the United Nations special rapporteur on Torture, Professor Manfred Nowak, remarked on German television that – following the inauguration of President Barack Obama – George W. Bush no longer had head of state immunity, and that under international law, the U.S. is mandated to start criminal proceedings against all those involved in these violations of the UN Convention Against Torture. [249], The US Department of Justice announced that there will be no trials even of those who went well beyond what the Torture Memos allowed, including those who tortured detainees to death. Deception can form an important part of effective interrogation. The CIA's operation and management of the program complicated, and in some cases impeded, the national security missions of other. "[61] In 2009 Rice said "[w]e never tortured anyone;" she maintained the abuse was "not torture," but was "legal", and "right". However, prosecutions in either the International Criminal Court, or in the courts of a particular nation invoking the doctrine of universal jurisdiction, are also regarded as unlikely. Almost immediately after the 9/11 attacks, Bush administration officials conferring by video link from bunkers decided to treat the attacks as acts of war, rather than merely crimes. See Commonwealth v. DiGiambattista, 813 N.E.2d 516, 533–34 (Mass. [71][74][75][76][77] However, neither of the two psychologists had any experience in conducting interrogations. "In its pursuit of torturers across the globe for the past forty years," writer Alfred McCoy notes, "Amnesty International has been, in a certain sense, following the trail of CIA programs. Clearly coercive. The CIA rarely reprimanded or held personnel accountable for serious or significant violations, inappropriate activities, and systematic and individual management failures. While the ‘bad cop’ is seemingly against the subject, the 'good cop' seems to take the side of the subject, sympathizing with and even defending the subject. In July 2014, the European Court of Human Rights formally ruled that "enhanced interrogation" was tantamount to torture, and ordered Poland to pay restitution to men tortured at a CIA black site there. Currently, there is a movement for mandatory electronic recording of all custodial interrogations in the United States. [18], The administration of President Obama in 2009 prohibited so-called enhanced interrogation, and as of this writing (March 2012) there is no longer a nation which openly admits to deliberate abuse of prisoners for purposes of interrogation.[19]. "[25][26][27][28] The United Nations special rapporteur on torture, Juan Mendez, stated that waterboarding is torture—"immoral and illegal", and in 2008, fifty-six Democratic Party members of the US Congress asked for an independent investigation. [71][77][80] The program subjected trainees to "waterboarding ... sleep deprivation, isolation, exposure to extreme temperatures, enclosure in tiny spaces, bombardment with agonizing sounds at extremely damaging decibel levels, and religious and sexual humiliation,"[81] including forced enemas[82] and other anal assault. [253] In addition, President Bush signed the 2002 American Service-Members' Protection Act allowing military invasion of The Hague to rescue any Americans the court might detain for war crimes trials. [111] A year before this investigation was concluded, it was revealed that interrogations by special units of the U.S. military services were much harsher and more physical than any of the above DIA practices, to the point that 2 DIA officials reportedly complained, after which they were threatened by non-DIA interrogators. [1][2][3][4][5][6][7] Methods used included beating, binding in contorted stress positions, hooding, subjection to deafening noise, sleep disruption,[8] sleep deprivation to the point of hallucination, deprivation of food, drink, and withholding medical care for wounds, as well as waterboarding, walling, sexual humiliation, subjection to extreme heat or extreme cold, and confinement in small coffin-like boxes. Military interrogators generally look to gather information about future events or to plan future military operations; law enforcement interrogators usually seek to elicit a confession … [131], Former President Obama, former Attorney General Holder, and Guantanamo military prosecutor Crawford have called the techniques torture. U.S.Senate Armed Services Committee report. "[49], In April 2002 the CIA had captured its first important prisoner, Abu Zubaydah, who was transferred to a CIA black site and at the suggestion of psychologist James Mitchell the CIA embarked on interrogation methods which included sleep deprivation using bright lights and loud music—still prior to any legal authorization from the US Justice Department. 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